Saturday, April 13, 2013


The TCP/IP model is a description framework for computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense.TCP/IP is the short form of  transmission control protocol and Internet protocol.
Tcp/ip is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet, nowadays. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet, VPN). When you  access  Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP. The TCP/IP Model is just another model ,which replaced OSI (because of various drawbacks and lack of protocols).
There are 4 layers of TCP/IP , which are divided into two groups.
  1. Transmission protocol- It the   higher layer, that  manages the assembling of a message or file into smaller packets that are transmitted over the Internet and received by a TCP layer that reassembles the packets into the original message.
  2. Internet protocol -Its the lower layer, that  handles the address part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination.
The following shows the different layers of TCP/IP  Model

now lets describe each layer in brief
  • Application Layer-its the top most layer in TCP/IP  used by most applications for network communication. Examples of application layer protocols include the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) .
  • Transport Layer-its above the internet layer and  functions are same as that of transport layer of OSI.Protocols used in this layer are TCP and UDP.
  • Internet Layer- This layer holds the whole architecture together.It allows the host to insert packets into any network and then make them travel independently to the destination.Routing of packets is also done.
  • Network Interface-This is the lowest layer of TCP/IP Model .its also called as Host-to-Network Layer.This layer is a combination of  Data Link layer and Physical layer.
Advantages of TCP/IP Model over OSI  are as follow
  1. TCP/IP operates independently of the operating system.
  2. TCP/IP includes support for a number of routing protocols.
  3. Enables internetworking between organizations.
  4. TCP/IP has a scalable, client/server architecture
  5. TCP/IP includes support for name and address resolution services, including Domain Name Service (DNS) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Windows Internet Name Service (WINS).
This is it for now

keep looking....

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